It is true that water has always meant life. Although this indispensable material covers about 75% of the earth, only 3% of it is drinkable. Specially, in the arid lands it’s been a controversy. In addition, through the history many methods have been invented to preserve this extremely needed element. So, today we are going to visit Yazd water museum where you will get familiar with the history of water and Persian Qanats, an ancient technique of transporting and preserving water.
Actually, this place is a traditional house that is converted to a museum. This traditional house belonged to a famous merchant, “Ali Akbar Kolah”, during the 19th century. The house is decorated with astonishing stucco and mirror works. Since 20 years ago, 2000, it has been converted to Yazd water museum where the longest Qanat in Iran is running beneath it. In addition the museum represents the difficulty of inhabitants to supply water which probably is the reason of being known as one of the best water museums.
The house consists 5 levels which each one has a specific function. Ironically, the first stage is the last one. It is the lowest level where tunnels of a pair of Qanats are crossing. One of them is “Zarach” which is a 2000-year Qanat and the longest one in Iran, 75 km, and the other one is “Rahamt Abad”. The next level is about 10m below ground that as a result of being the coolest part, it was a warehouse where food were saved like a refrigerators. The third level is the basement and the winter residence. The forth level, the ground floor, is the main reside, including; rooms with vertical sliding windows, wind catcher rooms, salon, etc. The last one is on the roof. There water was withdrawn from “Rahmat Abad” Qanat and deposited for daily usage.
In the museum more than 200 objects related to water are collected. There are two Qanats which are running beneath the house, “Zarach” and “Rahmat Abad”. You will get familiar with the appearance of a dig man and the tools he uses. Beside, there are some documents. Interestingly some of the are documents of dowries, Jehaz, as water is a precious element specially in deserts it was chosen as the dowry of women. Also, there is a book in which explains how water was shared or distributed, in fact someone called “Mir Ab” was responsible to do it. To do that he needed a water-watch that the oldest one is keeping in this museum, 700 years old. Above all, different vassals and utensils of drinking, keeping or carrying water are presenting in the museum.
Yazd water museum is one of the most important water museums in Iran. There you will notice how water was supplied in dry lands, the way they built Qanats and connected them into the houses. Also there are different documents of the ownerships that imply how water was dealt. In fact, it displays tools and techniques of supplying water since at least 4000 years a go that proves Iranian knew how to transfer water before romans.