One of the most delicate, beautiful and fragrant industries in Iran is Golabgiri, rosewater making, and Damask rose is used to produce this Iranian souvenir. Golab or rosewater is the most famous type of distillate that is taken from rose. The festival begins at the beginning of May due to the weather conditions. The distillation, rose-picking and rose festival attracts several million tourists from all over the country, as well as many foreign tourists. The cities of Meymand, Darab, Kashan, Ghamsar and Niasar are the main hub of rose distillation in Iran.
The planting of Mohammadi flower, Damask rose, in Iran is about 7,000 years old and the rose-picking ceremony is a 1,000-year-old ritual that has changed slightly over time. Ghamsar rose, which is considered as the best rose in the world in terms of quality, is also highly respected in terms of religion, so that every year on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of Hijri calendar, the Kaaba is washed and perfumed with this pure rosewater. In May, the Iranian Mohammadi flowers, Damask rose, are fully grown and ready to be picked, at which time the rose-picking ceremony takes place.
The flowers of the ceremony are picked in groups and early in the morning. In the past, this ceremony was held according to special customs and they went to the rose-making workshop, distillatory workshops, playing some musical instruments, although in some parts of Kashan, according to the same previous rituals, they still carry the equipment with camels. Before the ceremony, pots and flowers are taken to the rivers and religious prays are said, and by placing special pots on the stove, the distillation, Golabgiri or rosewater making, process begins.
Depending on the size of the pot, the fresh flowers are mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 3, then the potential holes are covered by putting a lid on the pot to keep the steam completely inside the pot. The whole rose watering process takes 4 hours. When the contents of the pot boil, steam is poured from the tubes into a large copper pitcher in cold water. When these vapors have also cooled, rose water is produced. Depending on their capacity, the pitchers produce about 30 to 40 liters of rose water. It is interesting to know that to get the scent of flowers, a very thin layer of oil is created on Golab, rosewater, which must be separated with a syringe.
Damask rose or Mohammadi flower has been one of the most important agricultural products of Iran since ancient times and is one of the native plants of Iran. Rosewater produced in Iran has been one of the most important souvenirs of Iran since long time ago. In the past, Iranian Golab or rosewater were transported to China and India via the Silk Road, and today a significant part of Iranian rosewater is sent to other parts of the world.
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