Previously we have gotten familiar with Persian gardens. Today we are going to visit another garden in the heart of Iran. It is a unique garden, as located in a dry area near deserts and some important historical events had happened there. Fin garden is a special garden located in Kashan, an ancient city, and registered in the UNESCO’s world heritage list among 9 Persian gardens.
According to the historic texts this garden was constructed since the early stages of the Islamic period, however some other believe that it was built during Sassanid dynasty. Unfortunately, during Safavid dynasty, 116th century, Fin garden was ruined due to an earthquake. The remains of this garden can bee seen a bit far from the present garden, known as the old garden. After that some tribes of Turkmens took the control of the city until the reign of Shah Abas the 1st. He defeated Turkmens and ordered to develop the city. So, they built a garden near the older, called the new garden. In addition a street and a field of polo were built in the distance of the gardens. It is a controversy that who was the architecture, someone claim that the famous Iranian mathematician was the architecture, while some others insist on Sheik Bahaei, a famous clergyman. After Shah Abas some other parts added to the garden, such as; a pavilion, an entrance, a pool and a bath. About 250 years ago, during Zand era, some earthquakes caused several destructions that Karim khan, the king, order to maintain the garden. They also added another building which is known as “Khalvat-e Karimkhani”. In fact most of the buildings were added during Qajar dynasty, 19th century. They constructed pavilions, a pool, a bath and added some paintings. Finally, about 60 years ago a museum was constructed on the remains of a structure.
Through the history several important events were happened in Fin garden. For instance, Shah Ismael, the founder of Safavid dynasty, ordered to hold a celebration in the thank of his coronation. It was welcomed by inhabitants that another ceremony was held. In addition, during the reign of Shah Abas, a Safavid king, the local governor of Kashan was assassinated. Some historians believe that it was done by the court. Moreover Shah Safi, another Safavid king, was died there and his son enthroned in Fin garden. But the most important event is the assassination of Amir Kabir, the famous minister of Qajar dynasty. In fact Amir Kabir did an admirable job. He built a school, Indicated a salary system for courtiers, canceled all the titles, etc. All of his great actions led other inefficient courtiers to make plots against him. Finally, they succeeded to persuade the king, Naseraldin Shah, to banish him to Kashan. Later when the king rerated and wanted to amend, courtiers deceived him. the king sentenced Amir Kabir to die. Immediately, Amir Kabir was murdered in the bath of Fin garden, while he was preparing himself to return to Tehran.
Fin garden is in the sketch of Persian garden, a type of garden being divided into different sections by streets and streams of water. As if several gardens are united. Also, water is the essential part of a Persian gardens. They can add the beauty of the garden, use for irrigating and provide a pleasant weather. In the garden there are some fountains. How do they work? In fact water gathers in pool which is higher than others. Then through some clay pipes, in Persian “Tanbooshe”, water flows in the garden, pipes have different dimensions, according to their position and are closed at the end of each pool. The slope of the surface causes the flow of water and duo to the differences in the height of the pool and in the dimensions of pipes it will flow equally which results in fountains. Another important part of Persian gardens are trees. In Fin garden there are various types of trees, most of the are older than 100 years and cypress is the main type.
The Safavid edifice
During the reign of Shah Abas the first, about 500 years ago, a pavilion was built in this garden. It used to have four stories, but as a result of an earthquake about 400 years ago it was rebuilt in two levels. It was used during ceremonies and probably upstairs was used by women. In addition this pavilion was decorated with astonishing paintings, but unfortunately were destroyed after the invasions of Afghans. The artist was Reza Mosavar and his works were such amazing that Shah abas the 1st took him to the capital, then he was known as Reza Abasi. He also painted Ali Qapu palace.
Alcoves or Shah Neshin room
During Qajar dynasty, 19th century, a mansion was added to the garden, by the order of Muhammad Shah. Later, it got famous as an alcove, in Persian “Shah Neshin”, and was a cozy place for the king. Also, The rooms on the corners are known as Shah Neshin or alcoves. On each side there is an entrance which one was used by king and through others servants entered to the building. They have vertical sliding doors, Orosi, with eye-catching stained glasses. In fact, some architectures believe that beside their aesthetic aspects these kind of glasses can be act like fly dopes.
The Qajar pavilion
Fath Ali Shah, a Qajar king, order to build an edifice in Fin garden, 200 years ago. It used to be ornamented by astonishing paintings, but as a result of being neglected after the assassination of Amir Kabir they were destroyed. Fortunately, based on the portraits of a French traveler, the paintings were maintained. On the paintings you can see some royal scenes, hunting scenes, some events, religious stories and 18 sons of the king. Moreover, below these paintings there is an inscriptions which is a poem in the praise of the king.
The most well known buildings of the garden are two bathrooms. One of them was built during Safavid dynasty, 400 years ago. This part can witness the assassination of Amir Kabir, the famous minister of Naseraldin shah the Qajar king. The other one was built during Qajar dynasty. Actually it was a royal bath. As other baths, vestibule, dressing room and warm room are the main parts of this bath. The bath is decorated with outstanding decorations. In addition the main material is lime which the more get wet, the more become stable.
There are different wonderful pools with amazing features. The one which is called “Hoz-e Jush” used to be paved with colorful tiles, like a carpet. Unfortunately about 90 years ago they were stolen by thieves. They moved the tiles into they private garden but could not install them which led the destruction of the tiles and only a few of them now are keeping in louvre museum. About 20 years ago, Mr. Pirnia tried to repair this pool, but when he found the pipes, because of their complicated structure he abandoned repairing it. Surpringly, there are 160 holes in the pool of which 80 holes were fountains and the 80 others help exiting of water. In addition to the south there is another pool which is supplied by a 7000-year spring located about 6 Km to the south of Kashan. The thing which makes it a special spring is that the closet is 360 liter per second. Moreover, in this pool the temperature is always 25°c.
Beside, 40 years ago on the ruins of another mansion a museum was built where you will see different objects. The garden is located near the central desert of Iran, shines like a pearl in the dark. Fin garden is a, unique garden, registered in the UNESCO’s world heritage list, among Persians gardens.